Saturday, 24 June 2017


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including:

living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly called gardening, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of creating a beautiful environment within the landscape.

natural elements such as landforms, terrain shape and elevation, or bodies of water; and

abstract elements such as the weather and lighting conditions.

Landscaping requires expertise in horticulture and artistic design.


1 Understanding the land

2 Tools

3 See also

4 References

Understanding the land

Construction requires study and observation. It is not the same in different parts of the world. Landscaping varies according to different regions.[1] Therefore, normally local natural experts are recommended if it is done for the first time. Understanding of the site is one of th e chief essentials for successful landscaping. Different natural features like terrain, topography, soil qualities, prevailing winds, depth of the frost line, and the system of native flora and fauna must be taken into account.[2] Sometimes the land is not fit for landscaping. In order to landscape it, the land must be reshaped. This reshaping of land is called grading.[2]

Removal of earth from the land is called cutting while when earth is added to the slope, it is called filling. Sometimes the grading process may Sprinkler System involve removal of excessive waste (landfills), soil and rocks, so designers should take into account while in the planning stage.[3][4]


In the start, the landscaping contractor makes a letter which is a rough design and layout of what could be done with the land in order to achieve the desired outcome.[2] Different pencils are required to make graphics of the picture. La ndscaping[5] has become more technological than natural, as few projects begin without bulldozers, lawnmowers, or chainsaws.[1] Different areas have different qualities of plants. Fertilizers are required for this purpose in excess amounts as natural landscaping is done. Some landscapers prefer to use mix gravel with rocks of varying sizes to add interest in Sprinkler System Installation Fort Worth large areas.[6]

See also





Landscape architecture

Landscape contracting

Landscape design

Landscape ecology

Landscape engineering

Landscape planning


Sustainable landscaping




^ a b Natural Landscaping: Designing With Native Plant Communities - John Diekelmann, Robert M. Schuster - Google Books. Retrieved 2013-04-10.

^ a b c Landscaping Principles and Practices - Jack Ingels - Google Books. 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2013-04-10.

^ Landscaping - William Slack - Google Books. Retrieved 2013-04-10.

^ Taylor's Master Guide to Landscaping - Rita Buchanan - Google Books. Retrieved 2013-04-10.

^ John Smith. "Landscaping by landscape gardeners: Methods and Tactics". New Ways Landscaping Design. Retrieved 2016-06-14.

^ Sharon Cohoon and Jim McCausland. "How to Landscape Gravel - Page 2". Archived from the original on March 19, 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-10.




Land use






Land management

Sustainable land management


Integrated landscape man agement

Land grabbing

Land consumption

Land loss

Habitat loss

Illegal construction

Land reclamation

Land rehabilitation

Landscape ecology

Rangeland management

Environmental planning

Leopold matrix

Watertable control

Developed environments

Built-up area



Subdivision (land)

Real estate developer

Land development bank

Land (economics)

Customary land

Related fields


Soil science

Soil compaction

Soil pollution




Urban planning


Urban renewal



Drainage system (agriculture)

Sustainable agriculture

Category Categories: Land use

Retrieved from ""

Friday, 23 June 2017

definition of construction by The Free Dictionary - the act of constructing somethingconstruction - the act of constructing something; "during the construction we had to take a detour"; "his hobby was the building of boats"dry walling - the activity of building stone walls without mortarleveling, grading - changing the ground level to a smooth horizontal or gently sloping surfacerustication - the construction of masonry or brickwork in a rustic mannerreface - provide with a new facing; "The building was refaced with beautiful stones"wattle - build of or with wattlegroin - build with groins; "The ceiling was groined"preassemble, prefabricate - to manufacture sections of (a building), especially in a factory, so that they can be easily transported to and rapidly assembled on a building site of - a group of words that form a constitu ent of a sentence and are considered as a single unit; "I concluded from his awkward constructions that he was a foreigner"adjunct - a construction that can be used to extend the meaning of a word or phrase but is not one of the main constituents of a sentenceclause - (grammar) an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentencecomplement - a word or phrase used to complete a grammatical constructioninvolution - a long and intricate and complicated grammatical constructionphrase - an expression consisting of one or more words forming a grammatical constituent of a - the creation of a constructconstruction - the creation of a construct; the process of combining ideas into a congruous object of thoughtcrystallization - a mental synthesis that becomes fixed or concrete by a process resembling crystal formationgestation - the conception and development of an idea or - a thing constructedconstruction - a thing constructed; a complex entity constructed of many parts; "the structure consisted of a series of arches"; "she wore her hair in an amazing construction of whirls and ribbons"altar - a raised structure on which gifts or sacrifices to a god are madearcade, colonnade - a structure composed of a series of arches supported by columnsarch - (architecture) a masonry construction (usually curved) for spanning an opening and supporting the weight above itarea - a part of a structure having some specific characteristic or function; "the spacious cooking area provided plenty of room for servants"balcony - a platform projecting from the wall of a building and surrounded by a balustrade or railin g or parapetbalcony - an upper floor projecting from the rear over the main floor in an auditoriumbascule - a structure or device in which one end is counterbalanced by the other (on the principle of the seesaw)body - the external structure of a vehicle; "the body of the car was badly rusted"bridge, span - a structure that allows people or vehicles to cross an obstacle such Home Improvement in College Station as a river or canal or railway etc.building, edifice - a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place; "there was a three-story building on the corner"; "it was an imposing edifice"catchment - a structure in which water is collected (especially a natural drainage area)colonnade - structure consisting of a row of evenly spaced columnspillar, column - a vertical cylindrical structure standing alone and not supporting anything (such as a monument)quoin, corner - (architecture) solid exterior angle of a building; especially one formed by a cornerstonecross - a wooden structure consisting of an upright post with a transverse piecedeathtrap - any structure that is very unsafe; where people are likely to be killeddoor - a structure where people live or work (usually ordered along a street or road); "the office next door"; "they live two doors up the street from us"entablature - (architecture) the structure consisting of the part of a classical temple above the columns between a capital and the rooferection - a structure that has been erectedestablishment - a public or private structure (business or governmental or educational) including buildings and equipment for business or residencefalse bottom - a horizontal structure that partitions a ship or box (especially one built close to the actual bottom)storey, floor, story, level - a structure consisting of a room or set of rooms at a single position along a vertical scale; "what level is the office on?"fountain - a structure from which an artificially produced jet of water arisesguide - a structure or marking that serves to direct the motion or positioning of somethinghull - the frame or body of shipjungle gym - a structure of vertical and horizontal rods where children can climb and playmasonry - structure built of Best Home Improvement College Station stone or brick by a masonhill, mound - structure consisting of an artificial heap or bank usually of earth or stones; "they built small mounds to hide behind" - drawing a figure satisfying certain conditions as part of solving a problem or proving a theorem; "the assignment was to make a construction that could be used in proving the Pythagorean theorem"mathematical operation, mathematical process, operation - (mathematics) calculation by mathematical methods; "the problems at the end of the chapter demonstrated t he mathematical processes involved in the derivation"; "they were learning the basic operations of arithmetic"quadrature - the construction of a square having the same area as some other - an interpretation of a text or action; "they put an unsympathetic construction on his conduct"interpretation - an explanation that results from interpreting something; "the report included his interpretation of the forensic evidence" - the commercial activity involved in repairing old structures or constructing new ones; "their main business is home construction"; "workers in the building trades"plumbery, plumbing - the occupation of a plumber (installing and repairing pipes and fixtures for water or gas or sewage in a building)sheet-metal work - the craft of doing sheet metal work (as in ventilation systems)shingling - the laying on of shingles; "shingling is a craft very different from carpentry"jerry-building - construction of inferior buildings for a quick pr ofit

Tuesday, 20 June 2017

Calais van driver dead in migrant roadblock crash

Calais van driver dead in migrant roadblock crash - BBC News

Firefighters and rescuers stand next to the wreckage of a van after it collided with a barricade made with tree trunks set up by migrants on the A16 highway near Guemps, northern France, on 20 JuneImage copyrightAFPImage captionThe van driver ploughed into the back of a heavy goods vehicle east of Calais

A driver was killed when a van crashed into lorries that had been forced to stop on a motorway near Calais by a makeshift barrier set up by migrants.

The van, registered in Poland, burst into flames. The driver's identity is not yet known.

Nine Eritreans were found in one Sprinkler System Arlington of the lorries and tak en into police custody.

In 2016, the so-called Jungle migrant camp at Calais was closed, but hundreds of people have returned to the area in the hope of reaching Sprinkler System Installation Arlington the UK.

Roadblocks, often built from tyres or rocks, were regularly placed on the A16 motorway leading to the port of Calais before the camp was dismantled in October. Migrants aimed to slow lorries down as they approached the port in the hope of climbing on board.

Migrants 'cleared fro m Jungle camp'What next after the Jungle?

An Eritrean man was killed in an accident involving a British motorist in October. But no further incidents had been reported on the A16 until late last month.

The crash in the early hours of Tuesday was described as the first fatality involving a driver.

Two lorries were forced to stop when tree trunks were placed in the road near Guemps, 12km (8 miles) east of Calais, at around 03:45 local time (01:45 GMT), local media said.

The van was unable to brake in time and ran into the back of them. The driver died at the scene.

Police said the nine Eritreans were being questioned on suspicion of manslaughter.

Several hundred migrants are living in the Calais area in poor conditions. Some 7,000 had lived at the Jungle camp before it was dismantled.

Saturday, 17 June 2017

Man aims to mow grass in all 50 states for those in need

KANSAS CITY, Mo. - A man on a mission to mow grass in all 50 states stopped in Kansas City on Monday. Rodney Smith Jr., started an organization that mows lawns for single mothers, veterans and older Americans.

He's based out of Huntsville, Alabama and says he got the idea a couple of years ago when he saw an older man struggling to cut his grass. He says his mission is rewarding.

"A small idea can change the world. I'm just cutting grass, I'm able, I'm able to help someone who's not able," Smith Jr., said.

"It means a lot, especially Sprinkler System Installation Greenville for a lot of elderly people who can't afford to get their grass cut because they're on fixed incomes. So when we can come here and cut their grass for free, it makes their day."

While in Kansas City he mowed the yard of a Northland widow whose husband served in the Korean War. His organization encourages young men to mow 50 yards where they live.

Click for Sprinkler System Installation Greenville more from Fox 4 KC. r-those-in-need.html

'Water cops' seek sprinkler scofflaws in drought-parched California| Reuters

By Sharon Bernstein


SACRAMENTO Calif. It was still dark on Kokomo Drive in Sacramento's Natomas district as Paul Brown edged his city-issued Honda Civic past a row of beige stucco houses with tiny front lawns, looking for water wasters.

He heard the scofflaws before he saw their lush green lawns amid the otherwise parched turf. The buzz of a sprinkler system gave them away on a day that the city, desperate to save water amid California's ongoing drought, had forbidden watering.

"If I can get a good picture - if there's a lot of water - I'll cite them," he said.

California is in the third year of a devastating drought that has led farmers to fallow nearly half a million acres of cropland, threatened fish hatcheries and shrunk drinking water supplies for some communities.

To get people to conserve, many municipalities and regional water agencies have hired "water cops" like Brown to enforce state conservation rules.

Cities have even asked people to turn their neighbors in, and some have created smartphone apps to make the process easier.

Brown, 46, a father of four who was hired by the city as a meter reader, said he picked this area because he has fielded numerous complaints from neighbors about water wasters.

Camera and citation book in hand, he parked the car a few houses down and got Sprinkler System Rockwall out, walking swiftly to the house where the sprinklers were on. A flash illuminated the building's facade, then all was dark again.

Brown headed back to the car and wrote up the citation. A check of his laptop showed that the residents had not been cited before, so instead of a fine of up to $500, they would get a warning. On a second offense, they woul d have to attend a meeting on how to save water. Third time, a fine.

The city of Sacramento has about a half-dozen employees enforcing conservation rules. Like Brown, they go out on Friday mornings before dawn, patrolling neighborhoods. When they're not patrolling, they field phone calls from residents turning in their neighbors, hopping in their cars to check out serious reports on the spot.

Water use in the city dropped 25 percent in August over the same month in 2013, the most recent month for which information is available, state data showed.
Statewide, residents and businesses cut water use by 11.5 percent in August over the comparable 2013 period, enough to fill nearly 40,000 Olympic-size swimming pools.

Felicia Marcus, chairwoman of the State Water Resources Control Board, credits new rules and tougher enforcement with much of the change.

"Regulations make better results than voluntary exhortations," she said. "People want to know that everybody else is doing it."

In August, the water resources board implemented statewide rules that prohibit watering gardens enough to cause visible runoff, hosing down driveways or asphalt, and operating non-recirculating fountains.

Regulators also allowed municipalities to set mandatory cutbacks and levy fines against those who do Sprinkler System Rockwall not comply.

In Los Angeles, the city has received 4,400 reports of water wasters this year, resulting in 2,200 warning citations, said Michelle Vargas, a spokeswoman with the L os Angeles Department of Water and Power.

L.A. has kept one water cop on the beat full-time since the state's last big drought in 2009, but it added three more this summer after the new statewide regulations went into effect.

The Southern California city of Long Beach is offering residents a water-waster app for their smartphones, making snitching quick and easy by allowing users to report neighbors and businesses for hosing down sidewalks, watering during the heat of the day or having a break or leak in their water lines.

Sometimes, Brown says, reports from vindictive neighbors lead him to visit a property only to find that no violation has taken place.

"I tell them I'm not going to cite you just because they call on you," said Brown, who carefully documents every case with photographs and a brief report. "There has to be evidence."

(Editing by Douglas Royalty)

Friday, 16 June 2017

Who Invented Electricity

I find the statement who invented electricity quite ironic. You cannot invent electricity as it is a naturally occurring phenomenon. You see high voltage electricity during thunderstorm and more electricity is produced in electrical storm than what is consumed annually throughout the world. So, instead of saying who invented electricity and how, we should rather ask who harnessed the natural phenomenon of electricity for the benefit of mankind. On the other hand, someone did invent electricity that helped brighten up the darkness in our lives. So, let me answer the question who was the first person to invent electricity.

Who Invented Electricity and How?

Electricity is a general term used to describe the presence of electrical charges. The discovery process dates back to 2,750 BC, when Egyptians referred to the electric fish as the 'Thunders of the Nile'. These fish were reported after about a thousand years by the ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic physicians. Pliny the E lder and Scribonius Largus recorded instances of electric shocks by catfish and torpedo rays. Arabs were perhaps the first to discover and identify lightning and electricity and coined the Arabic word raad for electric ray.

The common observation, that rubbing amber on cat's fur could attract light objects was known to the ancient cultures around the Mediterranean. In 600 BC, Thales of Miletus became the earliest researcher of electricity. He rubbed fur with other objects and found them to attract each other. When he tried rubbing amber, he found that friction turned amber into a magnet. He was although incorrect in thinking that attraction was due to magnetic effect. But science has managed to prove a link between magnetism and electricity.

Electricity remained an intellectual wonder for another 1000 years. The English physician William Gilbert, in 1600 studied the relationship between ?v=aWoSWNwtVKA electricity and magnetism in detail and was able to find the lodestone effect due to static electricity, that was produced by rubbing amber. Thus, the Latin word electricus, meaning 'of amber' was coined by Gilbert. Soon, in 1646 Thomas Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica included the English words 'electric' and 'electricity'. Therefore one can answer the question who was the first person to invent electricity as William Gilbert, who became the father of modern electricity.

Otto Von Guericke, in 1660 made an unconventional machine that could produce static electricity with a ball of sulfur. He was followed by Francis Hauksbee who came up with more experiments that helped produce electricity. You will be surprised to know the Van de Graaf generator is the direct descendant of these earliest machines.

Robert Boyle put forth a hypothesis that at traction and repulsion was mutual and electricity was transmitted through vacuum. Stephen Gray further helped in distinguishing between conductors and nonconductors. In the 18th century, after a great deal of study, Benjamin Franklin attached a metal key to the bottom of a dampened kite string. He flew this kite in a stormy sky that lead to a succession of sparks that jumped from the key to the back of the hand. Thus, Franklin could prove that electricity was a natural phenomenon.

Bioelectricity, another natural phenomenon was discovered by Luigi Galavi in 1791. He demonstrated that electricity was the medium between nerve cells that helped passing signals to muscles. A more reliable source of electricity than the electrostatic machines used, was provided by Alessandro Volta's battery also called voltaic pile. He made it from alternating layers of zinc and copper. Thus, the answer to who invented electricity and in what year can be given as Alessandro Volta who invented the first true battery that became the source of continuous electric current.

Hans Christian Orsted and Andre-Marie Ampere during the 1819-1820 helped electromagnetism turn into a recognized field of electric and magnetic phenomenon. Electric motor was invented in 1821 by Michael Faraday and an electrical circuit that was mathematically analyzed was made in 1827 by Georg Ohm.

The contributions by late 19th century scientists like Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison, Otto Blathy, Sir Charles Parsons, George Westinghouse, Ernst Werner von Siemens, Alexander Graham Bell and Lord Kelvin gave birth to commercial electricity.

When answering who invented electricity and how, you won't be able to single out one individual. It has been a trial and error case study that involved scientific and intellectual oddity that helped in invention of electricity. Electricity has been the basis of almost all the great inventions of the world. Television, refrigerator, air conditioners, food processors, music system, etc. would have been inutile, if electricity would not have been invented. The great Industrial Revolution occurred with invention of electricity. I hope you have been able to get your query who invented electricity and how answered with this article.

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Friday, 9 June 2017

The controversial painting Congress refuses to brush off

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